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Russ Briley Wine-ing: Bud Breaks and bad

When vines begin to grow in the spring, a cold snap can damage them and drive up the cost of grapes

Posted: August 17, 2012 6:00 a.m.
Updated: August 17, 2012 6:00 a.m.

Russ Briley

 

This was originally published in the Ventura County Star on April 7, 2012.

Every spring, vineyard managers rejoice as their grapevines come to life and the grape-growing cycle begins.
This first part of the growing cycle is called bud break. This stage starts around the beginning of March in the Northern Hemisphere and September in the Southern Hemisphere. The bud break begins when the temperature starts exceeding 50 degrees. Buds on the vine begin to swell and shoots and leaves begin to grow.

Although this is a joyous occasion, it is nervous time for vineyard managers. After bud break, the weather is monitored very closely as a change back to colder temperatures could spell doom for the vineyard. The concern is frost damage, which could wipe out an entire vineyard, or a part of it. Frost damage occurs when the temperature drops to 32 degrees and below.

Last year my wife and I were looking for Central Coast pinot noir grapes for our 2011 vintage and we thought this would be no problem. However, in 2011 many parts of the Central Coast experienced a frost right after bud break. The frost damaged many vineyards and crop sizes were reduced by more than 60 percent in some cases. This creates havoc for big producers, and minuscule producers such as me are usually shut out or forced to pay prices that are typically out of reach. One winery in 2010 quoted a price of $2,300 a ton. This same winery in 2011 quoted us a price of $6,000 a ton.

We recently visited the Finger Lakes wine region in New York and many wineries were very concerned because this year they have had very uncharacteristic warm winter temperatures. One vineyard manager took us out to the vines and showed us buds that were swelling. They were predicting a very early bud break, knowing that the cold weather could still be upon them.

In fact, they were predicting a very cold night the day after we left and many wineries were preparing their vines for frost protection. Many of them were using very large bales of tightly bound hay placed strategically around the vineyard. They set them on fire to warm the vineyard temperature.

In France, it is not uncommon to see 55-gallon drums at each row of vines. Fires are started in the drums and are tended throughout the night.

One of the most surprising frost prevention methods is used a lot. Vineyard managers spray the vines with water, which freezes and creates a coat of ice. The coat of ice protects the vines. This method works because a small space is created between the vine and ice. This insulation method works as long as the temperature does not fall below 28 degrees or the vines are not in this state for more than a few hours.

© Ventura County Star

As well as writing a wine column for the Ventura County Star, Russ Briley, long time Santa Clarita Valley resident, recently completed the Wine Studies program at COC. Russ and his wife Nancy also own Nuggucciet Cellars, where they produce small lots of Pinot Noir wine. Visit www.nugguccietcellars.com. Email Briley at nuggucciet@aol.com.

 

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